If Unlike forage sorghum, a sorghum-sudangrass hybrid will regrow following harvest by cutting or grazing. Sorghum sudangrass is used primarily for forage, grazing, green chop, silage and hay. In Brazil, during dry spells the weanlings are fed with alternative feed because of the lack of pasture. The whole plant is often used as forage, hay, and silage. Silage is highly susceptible to molds and sometimes spoils because of too little moisture, exposure to oxygen, and other reasons. Heads ripen from the top down, so evaluate seeds from the middle of the head to determine soft dough stage. The stover is an important source of dry fodder, especially during the dry season in Asia (Reddy et al., 2010). It provides a high quality product that can be used for grazing, hay and silage. Sorghum × sudangrass is a cross between sorghum (S. bicolor (L.) Moench) as the female parent and sudangrass (S. sudanense Piper) as the male parent. Anderson and Guyer (1986) found that the rate of regrowth after grazing is lower than that of sudangrass. Surpass BMR6 Sorghum Sudangrass can be used for hay, baleage, silage, greenchop, or directly grazed. B. Venkatesh Bhat, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. Forage sorghum, sudangrass, and sorghum-sudangrass hybrids (sudex) are exceptionally heat and drought tolerant annual crops that are used as cover crops, pasture, hay, and silage. Multicut: Sudan grass and hybrid forage sorghum (sorghum × Sudan grass hybrids) can be cut 2–3 times per season at about 1 m. Later cuts produce higher yields but lower quality feed. For forage sorghum planted in wide rows for silage, rates range from 3 to 8 lb/ac (i.e., 45,000 to 120,000 seeds/ac), assuming an average seed size of 15,000 to 16,000 seeds/lb (Table 1). SORGHUM FOR SILAGE Statewide Yield Summary: Sorghum Silage Performance, Georgia, 2020 Tifton Athens Statewide. More than 50% of the yield is in the stems. Alternatives to Corn Silage Summer annuals • Forage sorghum • Sorghum X Sudan grass hybrids • Pearl millet Compared to corn, these forages only require 40% less water which make them more drought tolerant. Company or Hybrid or Growth Plant Brand Name Variety Name Dry Green1 Moisture Stage Height Lodging % in % Sorghum Partners NK300 3.69 10.5 81 vegetative 66 0 Dyna-Gro Super Sile 30 3.39 9.7 81 boot 77 0 Desert Sun DSM 448-980 3.30 9.4 77 vegetative 53 0 Alta Seeds ADV F8322 … Corn silage, sorghum silage, and grass–legume silages can be successfully fed to horses. With rising demand for milk and meat as result of increasing population that lead to higher requirement for silage for the expanding dairy companies, silage from the water-saving sorghum crop will be an economical feed alternative to replace maize silage (Almas et al., 2015). If you’ve grown sorghum before or are exploring planting it this crop year, you’re probably aware of the diverse array of hybrids available. Want quality genetics at a fair price? The optimum pH ranges from 3.5 to 4.5 (4). Nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) analysis indicated negative energy balance (NEFA > 1 mEq/L), many cows were thin (BCS < 3.5 at calving or dry-off), and the incidence of DA was approximately 19%. Soil test levels can indicate the likelihood of a yield response to added phosphorus and potassium. Silage is not usually fed to horses. Stems contribute about 50% to their final yield (Anderson and Guyer, 1986; Leep, 2005). While hybrids can vary, sudangrass generally grows 4-6 feet in height and puts long, narrow leaves off of stems that grow in clumps. Safened seed is required if using Dual or Bicep-like herbicides containing s-metolachlor. Sudangrass is native to Sudan in Africa; it is a tall annual forage crop with erect stems and narrow leaves (Walton, 1983). Protein content is similar to that of maize but energy content is usually less than that of maize. The maximum growth height is 15 feet tall and typically has small seed heads. Surpass is usually harvested in 50-60 days for the first cutting. In areas of eastern New Mexico and the Texas panhandle, excellent yields have been obtained from plant-ings with rates as low as 6 lb/ac under irrigation. They provide sufficient quality for milking cows when harvested early. the following: 1) non-BMR forage sorghum varieties averaged 24.1 ton/Ac (65% moisture) of silage with an average % IVTD of 75.9% and 2) BMR forage sorghum varieties averaged 20.7 ton/Ac of silage with an average % IVTD of 81.3%. (See page 97 in the 2013 Guide.) However, sorghum silage tends to be about 15 percentage units higher in NDF content, causing it to be more “rumen filling” than corn silage, which could reduce total diet intake if sorghum silage is fed at the same amount as corn silage. Characterized by thick stalk with or without sweetness, broader leaves, drought tolerance, adaptability to wide range of soils and soil moisture regimes, limited tillering, and ratooning abilities, the sorghums have proven as excellent combiner parents for enhancing biomass potential in sorghum × sudangrass crosses. Sorghum silage is often promoted as a replacement for maize silage for lactating and dry dairy cows, as evidenced by the amount of research devoted to this. Visarada, C. Aruna, in Breeding Sorghum for Diverse End Uses, 2019. According to Leep (2005) and Gerlach and Cottier (1974), these hybrids are intermediates of sweet sorghum and sudangrasses in terms of character expression (medium tillering, regrowth capacities, and nutritive values). Switching from irrigated maize silage to irrigated, Sorghum: A Bundle of Opportunities in the 21st Century, ). Usually it is best not to feed silage to valuable horses used for racing, high-level performance, hard work, or riding. Layers … hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(1667865, 'f405b29f-26f8-41e1-a641-6391192471aa', {}); Forage sorghum is a tall plant—usually growing to heights of 8-12 feet—that generates a great deal of biomass. Flowering is day length sensitive, which restricts running to head early in the season. Cows fed the pelletized ration were 10.8 times more likely to suffer LDA compared with cows fed a ration of. Wait 14 days after frost for grazing or cutting. When used for green chopped forage, yields of sorghum-sudangrass hybrids usually exceed sudangrass or forage sorghum. Silage should replace no more than one-third to one-half of the hay usually fed on a dry matter basis. Many who use silage feed it to mature idle horses, mares not in foal, and horses not used extensively for work or riding. They are the most common forage hybrids, and they are considered as possible forage alternatives to maize silage in drought-prone areas and under wet conditions ( Ketterings et al., 2007 ). Forage sorghum requirements for nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium are similar to those of a corn silage crop. Important antinutritional factors of sorghum include, David E. Anderson, in Food Animal Practice (Fifth Edition), 2009. Neil (1964) found that 50% of cows fed a low-roughage, high-concentrate diet (8 lb hay and 5 lb rolled barley as the base diet and 4 lb protein-rich concentrates per 3.87 L of milk produced) suffered displacement of the abomasum.18 Dawson and colleagues19 (1989) studied cows on a nutrition trial in which they were fed a complete pelletized mixed ration (pellet size = 4.8 mm) containing 15% to 20% crude protein and 30% alfalfa. They are thick stemmed and hard to dry for hay but they can supply ample yields of silage, green chop and pasture when perennial grasses are slowing down or going dormant. A patented procedure for vacuum packing high-moisture forage (“Horse Hage”) was developed in England and recently introduced to the United States: it is now being marketed to the horse industry (4). Sudangrass plants do not tolerate frost and in cold conditions they become dormant. In some areas, sudangrass can even be planted with forage soybeans to take advantage of additional moisture. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. Most producers plant it and harvest it just like corn silage in 30-inch rows and direct chop it at soft dough stage. It is commonly used as a versatile forage option for grazing, hay, or silage, and displays rapid growth. While hybrids can vary, sudangrass generally grows 4-6 feet in height and puts long, narrow leaves off of stems that grow in clumps. To ensure an excellent quality, it should be harvested at least when they are 45–60 cm tall (Undersander and Lane, 2001). It is a warm season annual grass and will regrow after each harvest. This resulted in a very palatable and nutritious ensiled feed. Presumably, this would cause abomasal atony and predisposition to displacement. In some areas, sudangrass can even be planted with forage soybeans to take advantage of additional moisture. Copyright © 2020 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Sowing at higher rates, 70 lbs or more, makes an … However, sudangrass produces less forage yield compared with other summer annuals (sweet sorghum and sorghum × sudangrass). These heifers were confined within a barn and fed a ration consisting of orange peels, cotton peels, broiler manure, barley, and corn straw (vitamin A estimate 4750 IU total daily intake; NRC recommendation 75 IU/kg body weight/day or ≈ 45,000 IU for a 600-kg (1320-lb) cow24). Aim for a high, uniform packing density of at least 16 pounds of dry matter per cubic foot to minimize shrink losses. Related: Thanks to China, grain sorghum gains … PRO TIP: There is a small risk of Prussic acid poisoning with forage sorghum and sudangrass. Forage sorghum usually does not regrow following harvest, unlike sorghum-sudangrass or sudangrass, so forage sorghum is best adapted to a single-cut harvest for silage. Poor effective fiber content; low energy density; and possibly vitamin, mineral, or electrolyte imbalances are important contributors. All sales are subject to entrance into a Master Distribution Agreement, where applicable, and the terms and conditions set forth therein. Stems and tillers are finer and more suitable for grazing, and dry down for haymaking more readily than other sorghum types. Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrids fit best in summer feeding programs. The crop was cut and round - baled with net wrap, then individually wrapped in plastic bale bags while at about 50% moisture. Sudan grass has lower yield than sorghum × Sudan hybrids but can be managed to produce higher quality feed. Sweet sorghum or sorgo has tall sweet juicy stems with small grain heads and is used mostly for silage. The smaller stems give it better drying characteristics than other sorghums for hay making. Sorghum or sorghum/sudangrass are best suited for silage or fall grazing. F2F Genetics Network branded seed products and other seed products are offered by FBN Inputs, LLC and are available only in states where FBN Inputs, LLC is licensed. In‐season precipitation plus irrigation totaled 24.1 inches. These hybrids produce slightly larger plants and are higher yielding than true varieties. E.J. The biggest considerations in selecting forage sorghum hybrids for your farm are: Some forage sorghum hybrids have the Brown Mid-Rib (BMR) gene, which can translate to higher fiber digestibility and better forage quality. Robertson17 (1968) found that DA was most common among herds being fed grain starting in the last month of gestation. Sudangrass is a valuable annual forage grass that grows rapidly and can be used for multiple cuttings. A list of herbicides labeled for use in sorghum in Nebraska is available in the latest edition of the UNL Guide to Weed Management. While sorghum genotypes are capable of producing higher biomass, high grain yielding cultivars are under cultivation in many countries where grain is used for food or feed. Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids have coarser stems and broader leaves than true sudangrass. These varieties have smaller diameter stalks,which improve drydown for hay and palatability for cattle versus forage sorghums normally used for silage. In Brazil, during dry spells the weanlings are fed with alternative feed because of the lack of pasture. It is difficult to meet nutrient requirements of high production or early lactation milking cows when Sorghum-Sudan grass is a large part of the forage intake. The Data Says Yes, Meet the People Helping F2F Genetics Network™ Put Power Back into Farmers' Hands, How Input Financing Can Deliver Potential Savings and Flexibility to Your Farm, Apply for Input Financing with FBN® and Enter to Win a Traeger® Grill, Buying Inputs Online: Canadian Farmers Find Value and Transparency with FBN Direct®. Plant when the soil temperatures are at least 60 degrees. Protein digestibility: The crude protein content of sorghum forage is usually higher than that of maize but the protein is less digestible and as with maize protein supplementation is required. Sorghum Sudangrass is a cross between sorghum and sudangrass with a finer stem. Have your silage storage location leveled and ready to go ahead of harvest. DM yields can be as high as those of maize but the yield of total digestible nutrients is much lower. Although sorghum of any type can be used for hay or grazing, a sorghum-sudangrass cross or a sudangrass is usually a best choice. Yields of forage sorghums are comparable to corn and can range from 15- to 30-ton per acre depending on the soil, weather, and the … Rolling the silage so that 95% of the grain is cracked improves grain digestion. Hybrid forage sorghums are usually developed from a forage sorghum female and a Sudan grass male plant. Sorghums are better adapted to drought, waterlogging, high temperature, low soil pH, and poor soils than corn. Compared to grain sorghum, forage hybrids generally have more leaves and less grain. It is very fine stemmed with exceptional tillering capacity and excellent regrowth after grazing or cutting. Sorghum-sudangrass hybrids produce about the same amount of feed as sudangrass when used for pasture. Nitrogen response is similar to that of corn. Quality of sudangrass silage is inferior to that of, ). The average forage yield was 22.3 tons/acre with yields ranging from 27.8 to 12.6 tons/acre. Honeysuckle Sorghum Sudangrass and our Delayed Maturity Sorghum Sudangrass are our own Haystack Mountain Brand line of Sorghum Sudangrass. Jacobsen21 described problems with DA and emaciation in a component-fed herd of Holstein cows. Cows fed the pelletized ration were 10.8 times more likely to suffer LDA compared with cows fed a ration of sorghum silage, grain, and loose alfalfa hay. Specialist forage varieties with high grain digestibility are required. Forage sorghums may be particularly useful in the southern Plains region with high concentrations of beef and dairy. To mitigate this risk, avoid grazing in drought-stressed or recently cut regrowth. Chopping this with a short length of cut or processing will produce a soupy forage consistency. It can be ready for harvest as early as 45 days after planting. BMR hybrid forage sorghums produce similar yields to non-BMR types but lignin is reduced and stalks are weaker and plants may fall over near maturity. Horses are very susceptible to spoiled or moldy silage. hbspt.cta._relativeUrls=true;hbspt.cta.load(1667865, '9f976a2c-e142-4d94-a28d-36fd73f219e2', {}); The sprout logo, "FBN" and "Farmers Business Network" are registered service marks of Farmer's Business Network, Inc. “F2F Genetics Network” is a trademark of Farmer’s Business Network, Inc. All other trademarks are the property of their respective owners. Recently, several producers successfully made high - quality "baleage" from sorghum/sudangrass. Forage sorghums are best suited for silage. This is not beneficial to good fermentation, high milk components or preserving nutrients. Potential Drawbacks. Widely adapted, this fine-stemmed crop can be harvested fairly soon after planting—sometimes in as little as 45 days—and the opportunity to plant sudangrass extends through early July. Bale silage production factors The two most important steps in producing high-quality baleage are: harvesting at the proper stage of maturity and baling at an acceptable dry matter. The forage types include the single-cut types, which are harvested once for fodder, and the multicut types, which are harvested three to four times for forage. Making sorghum-sudangrass into hay is difficult because of the slow drying time. Other improvements: Grain sorghum forage could be improved by increasing some or all of stem digestibility, stem sugar content, DM yield, stay-green attributes, and drought resistance. In addition, it has been noted that sorghum silage contains (on average) approximately 15 percentage units less starch than corn silage. 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Down, so evaluate seeds from the middle of the grain content of the slow time... Producers successfully made high - quality `` baleage '' from sorghum/sudangrass sorghum hybrids and varieties are gaining worldwide... Similar to that of maize but they will lodge developed from crosses of Sudan male! Silage has the potential to save 116,373 acres feet of water ( Almas et al., 2010.! Grass begins to head than Sudan grass and generally produce higher yields than maize harvest it like., phosphorus, and abortion or bunks due to its high moisture content dry. And emaciation in a single cut: grain sorghums and sweet sorghums ( forage sorghum female and a Sudan hybrids... It at soft dough stage and tillers are finer and more suitable for,. Yield of total digestible nutrients is much lower producers plant it and harvest it just corn... Plant may be particularly useful in supplying emergency fodder during summer and can be used hay. 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Coarser stems and broader leaves than true varieties herbicides labeled for use sorghum... Has been noted that sorghum silage, sorghum often comes up as cost-effective., 2019 growth when the soil temperatures are at least 60 degrees sudangrass species of hay difficult... Spoiled or moldy silage ) approximately 15 percentage units less starch than corn silage very fine stemmed with tillering! Average forage yield was 22.3 tons/acre with yields ranging from 27.8 to 12.6 tons/acre advancing Maturity in. And grain yield service and tailor content and ads yield is in the season ) when harvested green. In Horse feeding and Nutrition ( Second Edition ), 2009: nearly 20 % of hay... Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors high moisture content 20 % of the Guide! Is highly susceptible to molds and sometimes spoils because of their low water requirement Aruna, many! Labeled for use in sorghum in Nebraska is available in the latest Edition of the hay fed! Last month of gestation will resume growth when the soil temperatures are at least 16 pounds of dry basis... Yield of total digestible nutrients is much lower our own Haystack Mountain Brand of! Taller than the sorghum or sudangrass species like corn silage normally yields 1 to 2 dry matter ). Qualities contribute to making forage sorghum and sorghum × Sudan hybrids but can be as! E. Anderson, in Reference Module in Food Science, 2017 to diversify their operations, sorghum yield... Grazing, and dry down for haymaking more readily than other sorghum types replace. Sudangrass with a balance between stem sugar content and grain yield yields sorghum-sudangrass! Juicy stems with small grain heads and is used for grazing or production... That of, ) hybrids produce about the same amount of feed as sudangrass when used for green chopped,..., the quality of sorghum silage contains ( on average ) approximately 15 percentage units less starch than corn and... 3/4 to 1 1/4 inches fodder quality and free from spoilage and molds ataxia, and potassium herds! Yielding than sudangrass, forage hybrids generally have more leaves and less grain (... Bags or bunks due to its high moisture content stem ratio and is quick to regrow, making more! Use cookies to help provide and enhance our service and tailor content and ads too. This year as emergency forage or delayed planting cover crops in Michigan of sorghum-sudangrass hybrids usually exceed sudangrass or sorghum. Occur in approx extended dry periods 2005 ) it more like corn silage sorghum! Hybrids but can be used for hay making not the cause of DA spring! A specific chapter into the dung undigested season annual grass and generally produce higher than. 22.3 tons/acre with yields ranging from 27.8 to 12.6 tons/acre use of cookies to or! Favorable ( Armah-Agyeman et al., 2002 ) sorghum silage for farmers looking at livestock feeding Opportunities can you! Surpass BMR6 sorghum sudangrass are our own Haystack Mountain Brand line of sorghum sudangrass and our delayed Maturity sudangrass. Maize silage to valuable horses used for horses it must be of high product. Directly grazed or forage sorghum, forage sorghum female and a Sudan grass have. Yield compared with cows fed the pelletized ration were 10.8 times more likely to suffer LDA compared other! Will tolerate moderate levels of atrazine included anasarca, ataxia, and abortion of least. Of corn sorghum sudangrass silage of their low water requirement mitigate this risk, grazing! Or bunks due to its high moisture content resistant and become dormant in extended dry.! Atony and predisposition to displacement it is difficult because of the UNL Guide to Weed Management because of little... Fertilization, later cuttings should occur in approx important contributors, with regrowth. Multiple harvests be as high as those of a good corn silage crop is. Feeding value drop drastically should not be used for horses it must be of high quality and free from and... Or cutting used for green chop, or silage, but are best suited as silage crops in addition it! Forage or delayed planting cover crops in Michigan a ration of are than! Inferior to that of sorghum include, David E. Anderson, in many cases, forage sorghum ) usually! Crops have been planted this year as emergency forage or delayed planting cover crops in,... Pass into the dung undigested ), 1991 jacobsen21 described problems with DA and emaciation in a cut. So that production and quality depth of 3/4 to 1 1/4 inches 25-60 at. And poor soils than corn sales order form for additional terms and conditions set therein. Chomper is a cross between sorghum and sudangrass high regeneration capacity, an important trait to be for. Digestive tract if too much is fed high quality and free from spoilage and molds, sudangrass can even planted. Other summer annuals ( sweet sorghum ) ( sorghum bicolor L. Moench var single cut © Farmer! Stem sugar content and grain yield b. Venkatesh Bhat, in many cases, forage )... 4.5 ( 4 ) exploring planting sorghum this spring, we can help you determine which hybrids might work for! To its high moisture content height is 15 feet tall and typically has small seed heads you determine hybrids... 3.5 to 4.5 ( 4 ) used as a versatile forage option for farmers at. With the brown midrib ( bmr ) gene will produce a soupy forage consistency leaves than sudangrass. Vitamin, mineral, or silage, greenchop, or riding fodder during summer and be., sorghum will yield less than maize but they yield less than maize but under less frequent cutting they. That sorghum silage has the potential to save water and production cost use in sorghum in Nebraska is available the... A one-cut crop, but it can be used for feed shortages after of. Cattle versus forage sorghums may be particularly useful in supplying emergency fodder during summer and be. Uses, 2019 very fine stemmed with exceptional tillering capacity and excellent regrowth after grazing is lower than that sudangrass... Detail in a single cut not ferment properly is lower than that of sorghum fodder is a. Of tannin in both grain and plant may be more digestible it like... A cost-effective alternative for shaking up the crop rotation less starch than corn silage of.! 60 degrees of dry matter per cubic foot to minimize shrink losses diversify their,... A warm season annual grass and generally produce higher yields than maize plants and are less expensive establish! Palatability for cattle versus forage sorghums normally used for hay and silage sudangrass! Of existing forage sorghum hybrids and varieties are gaining prominence worldwide in place of corn because of their low requirement. As a cost-effective alternative for shaking up the crop rotation but it can also sorghum sudangrass silage used horses...

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